Tag Archives: Hindu Marriage Act

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Territorial Jurisdiction – Where Can You File Divorce Petition

I’ve written a lot about the source link source link Procedure for Mutual Consent Divorce and where can you purchase finasteride where can you purchase finasteride Contested Divorce in my previous articles. A lot has been written about the source link source link Grounds for Divorce as well. However, there is another important topic which often isn’t talked about much. That is, territorial jurisdiction for filing a Divorce Petition. Since most marriages in India are governed by the Hindu Marriage Act, therefore for the sake of convenience, I shall explain the provision contained in the Hindu Marriage Act.

The easiest way for me to explain territorial jurisdiction for the purpose of filing a Divorce Petition in India is to tell you about the time when a young couple named Pankaj (real name changed for privacy) and Nisha (real name changed for privacy) came to me. Pankaj met Nisha while he was enjoying a vacation in Goa during the autumn of 2015. He was a Delhite and lived with his parents in Green Park. Nisha belonged to Mumbai. She had been living in Bandra with her parents since her childhood. Continue reading

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Procedure For Contested Divorce As Per Hindu Marriage Act In India

“They say marriages are made in heaven. But so is thunder and lightening.” — Clint Eastwood

At times, despite our best efforts, life takes a turn for the worst. We may have wanted different things from life, but life’s got its own plan as well. A bad marriage is something which nobody hopes for, but at times, that’s exactly what we are given and forced to face head on.

The Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 provides for 2 ways to obtain divorce from your spouse:

  • Contested Divorce under Section 13 of the Act
  • Mutual Consent Divorce under Section 13-B of the Act

I’ve already talked about Procedure for Mutual Consent Divorce in one of my earlier articles. Today I shall talk about Procedure for Contested Divorce as per Hindu Marriage Act in India.

Of course, the easiest way to obtain a Divorce is by Mutual Consent of the husband and wife. However, at times, the circumstances are not that easy, the situations are not that easy, and the other spouse itself may not be easy to handle as well. In that case, the only option left is to apply for a Contested Divorce under the Hindu Marriage Act.

A spouse cannot file for Contested Divorce citing any reason it thinks is good enough to legally separate from his/her partner. There are specific grounds laid down under the Hindu Marriage Act, and only under these grounds can a Contested Divorce be filed in Court. Continue reading

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Procedure For Mutual Consent Divorce As Per Hindu Marriage Act In India

“I’m so miserable without you, it’s almost like having you here.” -Unknown

Marriages are hard. Divorces…even harder. Nobody enters a marriage thinking about a divorce in the end. If some are unable to cope with the harsh realities of marriage, the only viable option in front of them is to approach the Court and seek legal separation by way of mutual consent divorce.

The most common question I get asked from those thinking about divorce is:

“What is the exact procedure for mutual consent divorce in India?”

I got so tired of explaining the same thing to so many people, I thought I might as well write a brief articles about it over here. This article explains the procedure in brief for obtaining mutual consent divorce as per Hindu Marriage Act. In the near future, I would also be writing an article about the procedure for obtaining a contested divorce as per Hindu Marriage Act.

So from where does mutual consent divorce begin?

Well, it all begins at your home. Yes, at your home and not in a Court.

Opting for a mutual consent divorce is a completely voluntary by both the parties.

There may be numerous reasons due to which a couple may decide to part ways and legally split from each other. However, in a mutual consent divorce, the reasons for obtaining divorce are irrelevant, and the important thing is that the decision for divorce has been taken jointly by both the parties with mutual understanding and agreement. Continue reading

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Understanding Cruelty – Grounds For Divorce In India

The expression “cruelty” has not been defined, however Section 13(1)(ia) of the Hindu Marriage Act 1955, provides:

13 Divorce — 
(1) Any marriage solemnised, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, may, on a petition presented by either the husband or the wife, be dissolved by a decree of divorce on the ground that the other party;
(ia) has, after the solemnisation of the marriage, treated the petitioner with cruelty;

Cruelty can be physical or mental

Cruelty, which is a ground for dissolution of marriage, may be defined as willful and unjustifiable conduct of such character as to cause danger to life, limb or health, bodily or mental, or as to give rise to a reasonable apprehension of such a danger. The question of mental cruelty has to be considered in the light of the norms of marital ties of the particular society to which the parties belong, their social values, status, and environment in which they live.

If from the conduct of the spouse, an inference can be legitimately drawn that the treatment of the spouse is such that it causes an apprehension in the mind of the other spouse, about his or her mental welfare, then this conduct amounts to cruelty. Cruelty may be physical or corporeal or may be mental. In physical cruelty, there can be tangible and direct evidence, but in the case of mental cruelty, there may not at the same time be direct evidence. In cases where there is no direct evidence, Courts are required to probe into the mental process and mental effects of incidents that are brought out in evidence. It is in this view that one has to consider the evidence in matrimonial disputes.

Cruelty may be mental or physical, intentional or unintentional. If it is physical, the Court will have no problem in determining it. It is a question of fact and degree. If it is mental, the problem presents difficulties. First, the inquiry must begin as to the nature of cruel treatment, second the impact of such treatment in the mind of the spouse, whether it caused reasonable apprehension that it would be harmful or injurious to live with the other.

Ultimately, it is a matter of inference to be drawn by taking into account the nature of the conduct and its effect on the complaining spouse. However, there may be a case where the conduct complained of itself is bad enough and per se unlawful or illegal. Then the impact or injurious effect on the other spouse need not be inquired into or considered. In such cases, the cruelty will be established if the conduct itself is proved or admitted. Continue reading

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Understanding Adultery – Grounds For Divorce In India

In a survey conducted by Ashley Madison, a global dating website, it was revealed that 76% of Indian women and 61% of Indian men don’t think that infidelity is a sin or immoral. People may not find infidelity a sin or immoral, but I would like to remind you that adultery is illegal as per Section 497 of the Indian Penal Code, 1860 which reads as under:

497. Adultery 

Whoever has sexual intercourse with a person who is and whom he knows or has reason to believe to be the wife of another man, without the consent or connivance of that man, such sexual intercourse not amounting to the offence of rape, is guilty of the offence of adultery, and shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years, or with fine, or with both. In such case the wife shall not be punishable as an abettor.

Adultery is also one of the valid grounds for divorce in India under Section 13(1)(i) of the Hindu Marriage Act, 1955 which reads as under:

13 Divorce  
(1) Any marriage solemnised, whether before or after the commencement of this Act, may, on a petition presented by either the husband or the wife, be dissolved by a decree of divorce on the ground that the other party;
(i) has, after the solemnisation of the marriage, had voluntary sexual intercourse with any person other than his or her spouse;

With the legal provisions out of the way, allow me to explain as to how exactly the concept of adultery is understood as a ground for obtaining divorce before Indian Courts. Continue reading